This stuff is really Sikh.

Posted: November 18, 2013 in Religion
Tags: , , , , , ,

A fresco depicting Guru Nanak

A fresco depicting Guru Nanak

Today, President Obama tweeted that he hoped Sikhs would have a happy time celebrating the birth of their religion’s founder, Guru Nanak.

Over here at the impeccably Christian Wellthisiswhatithink chapel, it reminded us that we don’t have a clue what the Sikh religion is all about, apart from their very groovy turbans which we have always sneakily been rather jealous about, so we wandered over to Wikipedia to have a look. What we read there was fascinating, so we decided to share. A little understanding goes a long way, we think, in reducing world tensions. Or just tensions in one’s own street.

Guru Nanak  pronunciation (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ; Hindi: गुरु नानक,Urdu: گرونانک, [ˈɡʊɾu ˈnɑnək] Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of the religion of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh Gurus, the eleventh guru being the living Guru, Guru Granth Sahib. His birth is celebrated world-wide on Kartik Puranmashi, the full-moon day which falls on different dates each year in the month of Katak, October–November.

Guru Nanak travelled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in every one of God’s creations and constitutes the eternal Truth. He setup a unique spiritual, social, and political platform based on equality, fraternity love, goodness, and virtue.

It is part of Sikh religious belief that the spirit of Guru Nanak’s sanctity, divinity and religious authority descended upon each of the nine subsequent Gurus when the Guruship was devolved on to them

 Family and early life

Nanak was born on 15 April 1469, now celebrated as Guru Nanak Gurpurab, at Rāi Bhoi Kī Talvaṇḍī, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore, in present day Pakistan.

Today, his birthplace is marked by Gurdwara Janam Asthan. His parents were Kalyan Chand Das Bedi, popularly shortened to Mehta Kalu, and Mata Tripta. His father was a patwari (accountant) for crop revenue in the village of Talwandi, employed by a Muslim landlord of that area, Rai Bular Bhatti.

He had one sister, Bibi Nanaki, who was five years older than him and became a spiritual figure in her own right. In 1475 she married Jai Ram and went to his town of Sultanpur, where he was the steward (modi) to Daulat Khan Lodi, the eventual governor of Lahore during the Afghan Lodhi dynasty.

Nanak was attached to his older sister, and, in traditional Indian fashion, he followed her to Sultanpur to live with her and her husband. Nanak also found work with Daulat Khan, when he was around 16 years old. This was a formative time for Nanak, as the Puratan (traditional) Janam Sakhi suggests, and in his numerous allusions to governmental structure in his hymns, most likely gained at this time.

Commentaries on his life give details of his blossoming awareness from a young age. At the age of five, Nanak is said to have voiced interest in divine subjects. At age seven, his father enrolled him at the village school as was the custom. Notable lore recounts that as a child Nanak astonished his teacher by describing the implicit symbolism of the first letter of the alphabet, which is an almost straight stroke in Persian or Arabic, resembling the mathematical version of one, as denoting the unity or oneness of God. Other childhood accounts refer to strange and miraculous events about Nanak, such as one witnessed by Rai Bular, in which the sleeping child’s head was shaded from the harsh sunlight, in one account, by the stationary shadow of a tree or, in another, by a poisonous cobra.

On 24 September 1487 Nanak married Mata Sulakkhani, daughter of Mūl Chand and Chando Rāṇī, in the town of Batala. The couple had two sons, Sri Chand (8 September 1494 – 13 January 1629) and Lakhmi Chand (12 February 1497 – 9 April 1555).

Biographies

The earliest biographical sources on Nanak’s life recognised today are the Janamsākhīs (life accounts) and the vārs (expounding verses) of the scribe Bhai Gurdas. The most popular Janamsākhī were allegedly written by a close companion of the Guru, Bhai Bala. However, the writing style and language employed have left scholars, such as Max Arthur Macauliffe, certain that they were composed after his death.

Gurdas, a purported scribe of the Gurū Granth Sahib, also wrote about Nanak’s life in his vārs. Although these too were compiled some time after Nanak’s time, they are less detailed than the Janamsākhīs. The Janamsākhīs recount in minute detail the circumstances of the birth of the guru.

Sikhism

Rai Bular, the local landlord and Nanak’s sister Bibi Nanaki were the first people who recognised divine qualities in the boy.

Happy Gurpurab

Happy Gurpurab

They encouraged and supported him to study and travel. Sikh tradition states that at around 1499, at the age of 30, he had a vision.

After he failed to return from his ablutions, his clothes were found on the bank of a local stream called the Kali Bein.

The townspeople assumed he had drowned in the river; Daulat Khan had the river dragged, but no body was found.

Three days after disappearing, Nanak reappeared, staying silent. The next day, he spoke to pronounce:

“There is neither Hindu nor Mussulman (Muslim) so whose path shall I follow? I shall follow God’s path. God is neither Hindu nor Mussulman and the path which I follow is God’s.”

Nanak said that he had been taken to God’s court. There, he was offered a cup filled with amrita (nectar) and given the command,

“This is the cup of the adoration of God’s name. Drink it. I am with you. I bless you and raise you up. Whoever remembers you will enjoy my favour. Go, rejoice of my name and teach others to do so. I have bestowed the gift of my name upon you. Let this be your calling.”

From this point onwards, Nanak is described in accounts as a Guru, and Sikhism was born.

Teachings

Guru Nanak’s teachings can be found in the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib, as a vast collection of revelatory verses.

From these some common principles seem discernible. Firstly a supreme Godhead who although incomprehensible, manifests in all major religions, the Singular “Doer” and formless. It is described as the indestructible (undying) form.

Nanak describes the dangers of egotism (haumai- “I am”) and calls upon devotees to engage in worship through the word of God – Naam – which implies God, the Reality, mystical word or formula to recite or meditate upon (shabad in Gurbani), divine order (hukam) as well as listening to the words of gurus and to engage in the singing of God’s qualities, discarding doubt in the process. However, such worship must be selfless (sewa).

The word of God cleanses the individual to make such worship possible. This is related to the revelation that God is the Doer and without God there is no other. Nanak warned against hypocrisy and falsehood saying that these are pervasive in humanity and that religious actions can also be in vain. It may also be said that ascetic practices are not favoured by Nanak, who suggests remaining inwardly detached whilst living as a householder.

Through popular tradition, Nanak’s teaching is understood to be practised in three ways:

  • Vaṇḍ Chakkō: Sharing with others, helping those with less who are in need
  • Kirat Karō: Earning/making a living honestly, without exploitation or fraud
  • Naam Japna: Meditating on God’s name to control your five evils to eliminate suffering and live a happy life.

Nanak put the greatest emphasis on the worship of the Word of God (Naam Japna). One should follow the direction of awakened individuals (Gurmukh or God-willed) rather than the mind (state of Manmukh – being led by self will) – the latter being perilous and leading only to frustration.

Guru Nanak’s Divine Journeys

Although the exact account of his itinerary is disputed, he is widely acknowledged to have made four major journeys, spanning thousands of kilometres, the first tour being east towards Bengal and Assam, the second south towards Sri Lanka, the third north towards Kashmir, Ladakh, and Tibet, and the final tour west towards Baghdad, Mecca and Medina on the Arabian Peninsula.

Nanak was moved by the plight of the people of world and wanted to tell them about the “real message of God”. The people of the world were confused by the conflicting message given by priests, pundits, qazis, mullahs, etc. He was determined to bring his message to the masses; so in 1499, he decided to set out on his sacred mission to spread the holy message of peace and compassion to all of mankind.

Most of his journeys were made on foot with his companion Bhai Mardana, a minstrel. He travelled in all four directions – North, East, West and South. He is believed to have travelled more than 28,000 km in five major tours of the world during the period from 1499 to 1524.

Nanak saw the world suffering out of hatred, fanaticism, falsehood and hypocrisy. The world had sunk into wickedness and sin. So he decided that he had to travel and educate people, pressing home the message of Almighty Lord. So he set out on his mission for the regeneration of humanity on this earth. He carried the torch of truth, heavenly love, peace and joy for mankind.

He visited various centers of Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists, Jainis, Sufis, Yogis and Sidhas. He met people of different religions, tribes, cultures and races.

His travels are called Udasis. In his first Udasi, Nanak covered east of India and returned home after spending about 6 years. He started from Sultanpur in 1499 and went to his village Talwandi to meet and inform his parents about his long journey. His parents wanted their young son to provide comfort and protection for them in their old age and so they told him they would prefer it if he did not go. But he told them that the world was burning in the fire of Kalyug and that thousands and thousands were waiting for the Divine message of the Almighty for comfort, love and salvation. The Guru, therefore, told his parents, “There is a call from Heaven, I must go whither He directs me to go.” Upon hearing these words, his parents agreed and gave their blessings. So Nanak started his mission.

The five journeys

Below is a brief summary of the confirmed places visited by Nanak:

  • First Udasi: (1499-1506 AD) Lasted about 7 years and covered the following towns and regions: Sultanpur, Tulamba (modern Makhdumpur, zila Multan), Panipat, Delhi, Banaras (Varanasi), Nanakmata (zila Nainital, Uttranchal), Tanda Vanjara (zila Rampur), Kamrup (Assam), Asa Desh (Assam), Saidpur (modern Eminabad, Pakistan), Pasrur (Pakistan), Sialkot (Pakistan).
  • Second Udasi: (1506-1513 AD) Lasted about 7 years and covered the Dhanasri Valley and Sangladip (Ceylon).
  • Third Udasi: (1514-1518 AD) Lasted about 5 years and covered Kashmir, Sumer Parbat, Nepal, Tashkand, Sikkim, Tibet.
  • Fourth Udasi: (1519-1521 AD) Lasted about 3 years and covered Mecca and the Arab countries.
  • Fifth Udasi: (1523-1524 AD) Lasted about 2 years and covered places within the Punjab.

Nanak appointed Bhai Lehna as the successor Guru, renaming him as Guru Angad, meaning “one’s very own” or “part of you”. Shortly after proclaiming Bhai Lehna as his successor, Guru Nanak died on 22 September 1539 in Kartarpur, at the age of 70.

So there ya go, everything you ever wanted to know about Guru Nanak, but were afraid to ask!

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Comments
  1. Thanks, Yolly, very interesting reading.

    Like

  2. mlshatto says:

    Several years ago I wrote a column on Sikhism, primarily because in the U.S. Sikhs are frequently confused with Muslims and suffer harassment and persecution. Last year after the attack on a Sikh temple, I updated the article a bit and posted it on my blog. Subsequently, I had the privilege of a lengthy email exchange with a young Sikh professional then working in New York City, who offered constructive criticism of some of my wording. The focus of my writing was on beliefs and practices, which may serve as a helpful corollary to the history you have recounted. Here’s the link: http://www.singingwithcrows.blogspot.com/2012/08/sikhism.html

    Like

  3. […] This stuff is really Sikh. (wellthisiswhatithink.wordpress.com) […]

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